Howard Gardner



Gardener was born and raised in Scranton, Pennsylvania on July 11th 1943. He graduated at Harvard University in 1971. During his time in Harvard he studied with Jerome Bruner and Erik Erikson, who were development psychologists. He is known for the Theory of Multiple Intelligences. This is based on his research on human intelligence, the development of abilities and how they are associated with the educational development in humans. Gardner’s theory originates from neuropsychology and has distinguished eight types of intelligences within human’s that work different areas of the brain. The eight intelligence include Linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily kinaesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalist. future/Creating_the_Future/ crfut_gardner.html_

The Eight Intelligences



Students with this intelligence are successful with speaking and writing and are aware of the meaning of words, sounds and rhythms.

Identified by:
. fascinated by language
. do well with public speeches
. enjoy activities with words

Teaching Strategies:
. formal and public speaking
. tongue twisters
. humor
. oral or silent reading
. creative writing
. spelling
. journal and poetry donclark/hrd/styles/gardner. html


Identified by:
. Good at recognizing different kind of plants and animals
. enjoy being outdoors
. aware of their natural surroundings
. able to relate to the natural world

Teaching Strategies:
. Outdoor games
. charting and mapping changes
. observing wildlife
. keeping journals or logs donclark/hrd/styles/gardner. html_

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

The ability to be able to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations and investigate issues scientifically.

Identified by:
. The ability to detect patterns and reason deductively
. Able think logically
. Number and reasoning smart
. Likes to count

Teaching Strategies:
. Provide the child with problems they can use to figure out with mathematics and reasoning
. Using math problem of the week Example: Soduku puzzle

Spatial Intelligence

ability to solve problems, similar to mathematics. Uses a similar logical way to solving problems.

Identified by:
. Picture smart
. The ability to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and confined areas
. Visualizing and mentally manipulating objects
. Has a stong visual memory, good sense of direction and good hand-eye coordination

Teaching Strategies:
. Using pictures or puzzles to solve different problems
. Using both logic and physical skills

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

The ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements. Learns by "muscle memory" meaning to remember things through their body such as verbal memory or images.

Identified by:
. body smart
. Using one's whole body or parts of the body to solve problems
. Gardner sees mental and physical activity as related
. They learn by muscular movement

Teaching Strategies:
. Doing anything by movement or activity
. Learning to count by playing tag for example


The ability to pursue one's interests and have a deep understanding of themselves. Having wisdom, intuition and good motivation.

Identified by:
. work best alone
. The strong silent type
. Deep understanding of themselves
. May tend to shy away from others

Effective teaching strategies:
. independent study
. reflections
. self taught activities


Operates primarily through person to person relationships and communications.
Identified by:
. the social butterflies
. many friends
. good leadership skills
. the peacemakers

Effective teaching strategies:
. group activities
. seminars
. debates
. dialogues


Based on the recognition of the tonal patterns, including various environmental sounds. Musical intelligence is structurally parallel to linguistic intelligence.

Identified by:
. sensitive to rhythm and beats
. love of music
. study better with music in the background
. often tapping out beats or humming tunes

Effective teaching strategies:
. Turning lessons into lyrics
. Speaking rhythmically
. Auditory memorizing
. Using rhymes or jingles to help memorize

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